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Grants for Research
Grants for the employment of research assistan(s, copying and typing, and travel for the preparation of this volume have come from the German Marshall Fund, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the Mary W Harriman Foundation I drew on interviews and library materials collected for the George C. Marshall Research Library, supported by the work resulting from earlier graiits by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. , Mrs John D. Rockefeller, Jr., the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, John
Lee Pratt, Mrs. Oveta Culp Hobby, the Scaife Fund, the Old Dominion Fund, and the Ford Foundation.
General Marshall agreed to be interviewed and gave his papers to the George C. Marshall Research Foundation with the condition that no monetary returns from a book or books based on his materials would go to him or his family but would be used for the research program of the Marshall Foundation. In accordance, the trustees of the Foundation, in employing me to collect his papers and to write his authorized biography, asked that I waive the right to any royalties from the biography except royalties that I might receive for any work on Marshall privately written after I had completed the authorized biography. During the years I was with the Marshall Foundation my salary was paid from grants. During the ten and one-half years that I was Director of the Dwight D. Eisenhower Institute for Historical Research, the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, I was permitted to work on this volume as part of my duties Research assistants and typists, the cost of copying hundreds of thousands of documents from the National Archives and other sources for the George C. Marshall Research Library, and separate office space were paid for by nongovernmental sources. Much of the research and writing was done on my own time and I have received no payment for my services in revising the manuscript since my retirement. My wife has typed the final drafts of the manuscript as a gift to the Marshall Foundation and I have paid the expenses for a private office for more than two years. All materials copied or obtained for my use in writing this book belong to the George C Marshall Research Library, Lexington, Virginia, and will be available to scholars. A large part of the copying and annotating more than one and one-half million pages of records has been done over thirty years by a staff under my supervision. These materials make up a large part of the research holdings of the Marshall Library.
The Marshall Foundation
The Marshall Foundation, which holds title to the personal papers and artifacts donated by General and Mrs Marshall and friends, and the papers and books
collected by the Foundation, was founded in Lexington, Virginia. in 1953 under the presidency of Mr John C Hagan Shortly thereafter, an advisory board headed by Robert A Lovett was formed to give advice to the trustees under Mr Hagan I was employed by the Foundation first as the Director of the George C. Marshall Research Center, and later as Director of the George C. Marshall Library and the Executive Director of the Marshall Foundation. In 1959, General Omar N Bradley became President of the Marshall Foundation. Mr Lovett became Chairman of the Marshall Foundation, a title which he held until 1985, a year before his death. In 1969, Lieutenant General Marshall S. Carter succeeded General Bradley as President. In the fall of 1974, Ambassador Fred L Hadsel succeeded me as Director of the Library. In the summcr of 1985. Ross R. Millhiser became Chairman of the Foundation and Ambassador Gordon Beyer was selected to fill the combined position of President of the Foundation and Director of the Library. Most of this volume was written and submitted to the publisher during the tenure of General Carter and Ambassador Hadsel, but I have had the full support of Mr Millhiser and Anibassador Beyer during the final revising Royster Lyle Jr., and Gerald L Nay served as deputy directors under Ambassador Hadsel.
Marshall Foundation Trustees
Trustees and officers of the Board who died 01- retired before the publication of Volume III of this biography were listed in the third volume Those who served in the period until recent months, who have now retired or died, are Lt Gen Milton G Baker. Hanson W Baldwin. Gen of the Army Omar N Bradley. David K E Bruce, James Bruce, Ellsworth Bunker, Ward hl Canaday, Gen LUCIUS D Clay, Fred C Cole, Harry A deButts, Gen Jacob L Devers, Lewis W Douglas, George M Elsey, Reginald S Fleet, William C Foster. Thomas S Gates, Jr., Gordon Gray, General Thomas T Handy, W Averell Harrtman, E Roland Harriman, Lt Gen Charles D Herron, Ma) Gen John H Hilldring, Oveta Culp Hobby, Anna Rosenberg Hoffman, Paul G Hoffman, Henry Cabot Lodge, Robert A Lovett , Royster Lyle, Jr , George C McGhee, Robert D Murphy, Paul H Nitze, Roger Ockrent. John C Parker, William D Pawley, F Warren Pershing, John Lee Pratt, Sol W Rawls, Robert T Stevens, Major General William M Stokes, J r , Lewis W Strauss, Vincent J Thomas, Paul W Thompson, Juan T Trippe, Lt Gen George V Underwood, Jr , C Tyler Wood, and Erskine Wood.
Current members of the Board of Trustees are Stephen Ailes, James M Ballengee, Lucius D Battle, Got-don R Beyer, Col Frank Bornian, Josiah BuntingiIII, Carter L Burgess, Robert W Cabaniss, Lt Gen Marshall S Carter, Maj Gen Robert F Cocklin, Gen J Lawton Collins, Margaret Truman Daniel, Peter M Dawkins, John W Dison. Paul W Douglas, James H Evans, S Douglas Fleet, Henry H Fowler. Col C J George. Roswell L Gilpatric, Gen Andrew J Goodpaster, Gen Paul F Gornian, Floyd D Gottwald, Jr , Elmon T Gray, Capt Harold J Greene, Fred L Hadsel, Geii Alexander M Haig. Jr , Huntington Harris, B Powell Harrison, Jr , Robert V Hatcher, Jr , Carlisle PI Humelsine, Robert E R Huntley, Lt Gen Richard L Irhy, John N Irwin 11, W John Kenney, Philip M Klutznick, Melvin R Laird, Carol Laise-Bunker. Harry G Lee, Gen Lyman L. Lernnitzer, Lawrence Lewis. Jr , William McChesney Martin, Jr , Brig Gen Frank McCarthy, John J McCloy, Edward C Meyer, J Clifford Miller, Jr , Ross R Millhiser, Gen Lauris Norstad, Frank Pace, Jr , H Merrill Pasco, Stanley F Pauley,
Howard C Petersen, Forrest C Pogue, Benjamin H Powell, Jr . 2nd Lieut David E Qiantock, George P Ramsey. Jr , W Thomas Rice, Gen Matthew B Ridgway. Lynda Johnson Robb, Mary G Roebling. William P Rogers, Dean Rusk, Maj Gen Charles E Saltzman, William J Schieffelin 111, Isadore M Scott, Lt Gen Brent Snowcroft, Lt Gen George R E Shell, James R Shepley, Williatn E Simon. Lt Gen DeWitt C Smith. Jr , Elmer B Staats, Wallace Stettinius, George A Stinson, Capt Kathryn Stone, C a p Steven W Swann, Gen Maxwell D Taylor, Gen James A Van Fleet, Cyrus R Vance, Gen Sam S Walker, Thomas J Watson, Jr , Langbourne M Williams, John D Wilson, Morton M Winston.
Inasmuch as I left the Marshall Library in the summer of 1974 to go to the Smithsonian Institution, I have not had day-by-day contact with the Lexington staff. Therefore, I wish to thank through Fred Hadsel and now Gordon Beyer the members of their staffs However, I wish to thank those who worked for me there over part or all of an eighteen-year period and have been there during part or all of the writing of this volume These members include Royster Lyle, Jr , my assistants, Mrs Boyd Stuart, Mrs Bryan Tolley, Hughey Johnson, Jorge Piercey. and Ted Camper Marguerite Old and the late Mrs Henry A Wise, who as a volunteer, indexed articles for me and made summaries of Congressioncil Rrcord debates pertaining to the European Recovery Program I have received assistance on the book fromArchivist Anthony Crawford and his successor, John Jacob In his search for documents for the Marshall Papers project, Larry Bland has brought important material to my attention During the period that she worked as librarian at the Marshall Library, Mrs. Barbara Vandegrift conducted a valuable interview with BBC correspondent Leonard Miall, and got an article by Miall pertaining to his broadcast of the Marshall Plan speech.
In the Arlington Marshall project, centered In my office here, where research on the book and writing were coordinated, Mrs Dorothy Dean typed the final draft of Volume II, all of the drafts of Volume III, and all of the early drafts of Volume IV She also kept track of my books and papers Working in that office and in the National Archives were my research associates, Sidney M! Lowery. an expert on Eastern Europe, and James S Nanney, an expert on Russian history. While working on research materials for my use, they also helped find and select a much larger body of material for the Marshall Library Lowery, who worked for me some seven years, found and brought together inaterial on such topics as the recognition of Israel, Universal Military Training, the battle for the European Recovery Program. negotiations for the North Atlantic Treaty, Marshall and Greece, and the like When I found it necessary to reduce my coverage of the Mission to China by almost half, Lowery helped with the difficult task of making the footnotes agree with the new text He also found original documents to correlate with my chapters on the Korean War, based on secondary sources Nanney, working for a shorter time, focused mainly on matters iiivolviiig Germany and negotiations with the Soviets He made available to me his paper on US military aid to China in the period covered by this volume He translated a number of Russian speeches and articles for m y use He also gathered material on such topics as the Bogoth riots and Marshall and Intelligence Both associates worked briefly in files at the Marshall Library and at the U S Military History Institute, and found books for me in the Pentagon Library, the Martin Luther King. Jr. Library in Washington. and the Aurora Hills branch of the Arlington Library Lowery completed a research project I began at the Hoover Institution Library and reviewed a
nuinher of interviews that I had borimved from the Truman Library as well as checking taped-recorded reels of interviews from the Dulles Collection at Princeton University
I wish to espress m y gratitude l o the Secretary of the Simthsoiiian during almost all of my stay there. S Dillon Ripley, to the Directors and acting directors of the National Museum of History and Technology (later of Ainerican Hiqtory), to Daniel Boorstin, who persuaded me to go there, Silvio Bedim, who signed the contract and Directors Brooke Hindle, Otto Mayr. and Roger Kennedy. under whom I worked I am grateful to thcm and to my executive assistant at the Eisenhower Institute, James S Hutchins, and to Mrs Barbara Lane my secretary. I also profited from the advice and information offered by curators of that period, Philip E. Lundeberg, Harold Langley, Doii’ild Iiloster. Cradclock Goins At the Woodrow Wilson lnternntional Center, where I was an adjunct Fellow for three years, 1 was often invited to seminars and lectures on international relations by the director, James Billington. and head of the National Security Institute, Sam Wells, Jr.
Members of my archival and research staff worked in the Federal Record Center in Alesaiiclria until the Army collections were moved to the National Archives where they were located during the writing of this book. I wish to thank directors James Bertram Rhoads, head of the Archives during much of the period, Robert Warner, and Frank Burke, acting director in recent months Research on this volume was assisted by Robert Wolfe, Edwai-d Reese. William C Cunliffe, Terry Hammett, and Milton Gustafson.
The single most helpful library outside of the Marshall Library was the Harry S. Truman Library headed by Benedict O. Zobrust. My contacts began there before the Library was finished, when I talked with President Truman at his office in the Federal Reserve Building, Kansas City, and with Philip Lagferquist and James Fuchs at the incompleted Library, and then continued with the late Director, Philip Brooks I drew heavily on help in the research files on Dennis Bilger Others who aided me were Elizabeth Shafly, Harry Clark, Warren Ohrvall, George Curtis, John Curry They have cheerfully aided me during many visits there and have made matenal available by mail.
The Franklin D Roosevelt Library and the Dwight D. Eisenhower Library yielded fewer materials for my purposes, but William Emerson and John Wickman and their staff have fully cooperated At Cai-lisle Barracks, the U S Army Research Institute has helped tile i n many ways Richard Sommers, Archivist, and the staff were particularly helpful. I received assistance over a long period at the Special Collections Library at Yale University in regard to the Henry L Stimson Diary and his papers At Princeton University, I was well received in the John Foster Dulles Collection.
Other libraries, where I have worked for shorter periods of time, but have always received a splendid reception. are the New York Historical Society, the Maryland Historical Society, and the Hoover Institution Locally, I used some of the manuscript collections at the Library of Congress, the Dr Martin Luther King. Jr. Library, Washington, the Aurora Hills branch of the Arlington County Library, and the Smithsonian Library branch in the National Museum of American History, which borrowed many volumes for me I am particularly grateful to the late Louis Starr and Elizabeth Mason of the Columbia University Library’s Oral History Collection.
I owe special thanks to the staff of the Public Record Office, Kew, where I did research during five visits over a period of years I especially appreciate the effort they took to show me the mysteries of computers and the care they took with my orders for copies of documents.
I have drawn on the resources of the Pentagon Library during the years I worked in the Pentagon on other historical projects and throughout the years of the Marshall project. The director during most of-my research on this volume was Mrs. Mary L Shaffer During much of that time my wife, Christine, who was a member of the staff, served as messenger to bring books for my use.
Government Historical Offices
The Marshall project has benefited enormously from the good wishes and cooperation of the various historical sections of the armed forces During the writing of this
volume, I have had the advice and assistance of Dr. Alfred Goldberg. Defense Department Histonan. I read the manuscript of Stephen Reardon’s history of the Defense Department in its early development and then Doris Condit’s early work on the Defense Department under Marshall and Lovett. In both cases, I was one of a rather large panel, made up of historians and former officials, who read the draft chapters and discussed the actual story of the period In the Historical Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, I have been aided by various historians Dr. Robert J. Watson, Vernon Davis, Helen Bailey, Kenneth Condit, Walter Poole, James Schnabel, and others.
With a close personal connection with the Historical Section (now the Center of Military History) of the Department of The Army that -extends directly back to 1944, I have known personally most of the historians of that organization and have served on the advisory committees of the Center and of its U S Army Military History Institute While writing this volume, I worked closely with the Chief of Military History, Brigadier General James L Collins, Jr. with the Chief Historians, Maurice Matloff and David Trask, with deputies Robert W Coakley and Charles B. MacDonald and librarian Hanna Zeidlik I especially wish to thank the Archivist of the LJ S Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, Richard Sommers.
I have also worked closely with the Office of Naval History and the OfFice of Air Force History and served on their advisory boards. In the Navy Department, I worked with Vice Admiral Edwin Hooper and Rear Admiral John Kane. and with Senior Historian Dean Allard In the Air Force, I worked with Stanley Falk. who for a time held the positions of Director of the Office and of Chief Historian, Major General John Huston, Director, and Richard Kohn, who holds both jobs.
On Marine Corps activities, I received help from the Director of the Marine Corps Historical Center,! Edwin H Simmons, and members of his staff, Henry I
Shaw, Jr., and Benis M Frank From Richard A Baker, Director, Senate Historical Office, and his deputy, Donald A Ritchie, I received material on Senate Hearings and committee staff activities
As the footnotes indicate, I have drawn heavily on the State Department’s Foreign Relations volumes I found many of the original papers in Marshall’s own files, and I directed the copying of thousands of pages more In those cases where the papers were later published in official volumes, I have keyed footnotes to those sources.
Assistance on Interviews in Taiwan
In 1977, I traveled to Taiwan and the United Kingdom, France, Germany. Holland, Norway, Denmark, aiid Italy with a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities Original arrangetnents were made in Taipei by Jaiiies Huskey, an American student then doing research in Taiwan. Later Dr. Chin-tung Liaiig of St John’s University alerted Chang Chun, senior adviser to the Government of Taiwan. During my stay, the Government furnished me with the services of an interpreter and guide, Johnny Sand, a car and driver, and arranged for a special luncheon and dinner as well as paying the hotel bill. As a result, the money in the original grant was sufficient to pay for my interviews in western Europe.
To my publisher. I am indebted for patience and understanding during the lengthy period when I was carrying out other major responsibilities while trying to write this biography. Alan Williams and Daniel Frank won m y friendship while working on this last volume. The writing was started under the editorship of Alan Williams, who gave occasional encouragement and advice. When I turned in the first draft, he had just left for anothei- position Daniel Frank and I have worked well together Dan proposed the rearrangement of some chapters, the pruning of others, the dropping of sections not pertinent to this volume, and the brightening of some dull passages. I have profited greatly from his advice.
Above all, I am eternally indebted to my wife, Christine, who shared the frustration, of a harassed author who alienated old friends and associates by repeatedly refusing invitations. She managed to endure bouts of rudeness and bad temper when she made suggestions for bettering the book. For careful typing of the final version of this book, for catching errors, for numerous good suggestions, and for restoring my sense of humor and proportion, I espress my fondest thanks.
With this volume I complete a project begun more than thirty years ago in the summer of 1956 to collect Marshall’s papers, interview him and several hundred associates, and write four volumes on his life and times. If I count a year I spent in 1943-44 as assistant to the historian of Second Army, a year as a combat historian, Europe, 1944-45, nearly seven vears as an Army historian in Paris and Frankfurt and the War Department, I can add an extra ten years to my work in Marshall’s papers However the years are counted, the acquaintanceship with the General has enriched my life.
Forrest C Pogue