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Editorial Note on North China Factional Fighting
General Feng’s defection demoralized the Chihli forces, who were then smashed in a series of engagements between the cities of Shanhaikwan and Tangshan in late October. Wu withdrew to Tientsin, collected what remained of his best divisions, and left North China by ship from Taku. As both the defeated and the victorious troops converged on Tientsin, the small foreign military contingents stood guard to keep the armed Chinese soldiers out of the Concession area without provoking a fight. By the second week of November, fighting had largely given way to negotiations among the victorious factions.
Recommended Citation: The Papers of George Catlett Marshall, ed. Larry I. Bland and Sharon Ritenour Stevens (Lexington, Va.: The George C. Marshall Foundation, 1981- ). Electronic version based on The Papers of George Catlett Marshall, vol. 1, “The Soldierly Spirit,” December 1880-June 1939 (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981), p. 268.